Biology Final Spring 2016
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by Kathy Egbert
| 55 Questions
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Name:Class Period: Date:
Egbert Bio Labs, Research Division
You have been working in the Research Division, Egbert Bio Labs, this past year. Your skills have improved so much that you are in line for a promotion in August to the Prather-Dean Facilities at OHS. However, before you can leave your present position you need to wrap up some projects. Your Research Division has been assigned some projects regarding the maintenance and production of organisms for Pet Stores.

1. Wrap up mealworm production information to give to retailers. Friday, May 6th you took a last count of your mealworms from their micro-habitats you created mid-March. Either use the images from the Google Sheet below or open up the Google Sheet attached to your Google Classroom Assignment Final 2nd Semester. It will look like the images below.

Hint: If you open the Google Sheet, it might be helpful to split your screen so you can look at the Google Sheet and the formative questions at the same time. Pull down the tab and resize to fill half of the screen. Resize the remaining tab.
Google Sheet to Open attached to Google Assignment Final 2nd Semester (Table)
continued Google Sheet to Open attached to Google Classroom Assignment Final 2nd Semester (graphs)
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Look at the Chart "Effect of Class Care on Darkling Beetle Survival" and also the data in column "I" (both shades of blue). Select the class group(s) that was the most successful with having living Darkling beetles (all stages of life cycle) at the end of the study period.
A Origin Source
B A4
C A4 and A7
D A7
E No one; they were all below 50% survival rate
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Continue looking at the same chart as you did in Question 1. Select the class group(s) that was the best at accounting for all of their original mealworms (column "J" and chart shaded red).
A A2 and Source
B A5 and A7
C A3
D A4
E None of the groups. No one accounted for all of their original mealworms.
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Continue looking at the same graph and table columns as Questions 1 and 2 (red shade). Select a possible conclusion(s) about A4's 104% result.
A They made an error in identification of their organisms and counted incorrectly.
B They possibly had Darkling Beetles restarting their life cycle, so the number increased from the original number.
C Some of the dead beetles were broken apart and counted as two instead of one.
D A, B, and C are all possible conclusions.
E None of the answers proposed are viable conclusions.
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Look at the Header row Line 1 and 2 between columns A and E (shaded green). Study the remaining two graphs "Effect of Time on Darkling Beetle Development". Select the most probable stage of development of the Darkling Beetle when the experiment was started in mid-March.
A eggs
B small larvae
C medium larvae
D large larvae
E pupae
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The best supporting evidence for Question #5 above is when organisms were counted on May 6th, approximately 60 days after the beginning of the experiment, many of the meal worms had gone through metamorphosis and emerged as beetles.
True
False
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Using the same graphs and Table Heading information as Questions 4 & 5. Compare our mealworm development to the standard information on the time spent in each stage of the life cycle. Select the best statement about the comparison.
A Our mealworms spent the exact amount of time in the pupae stage as the standard life cycle.
B Our mealworms spent less time in the pupae stage compared to the standard life cycle.
C Our mealworms spent more time in the pupae stage compared to the standard life cycle.
D Our mealworms skipped the pupae stage and turned into beetles.
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The number of deaths and the number of adult beetles increased the most throughout the time period from March through May.
True
False
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Graph "2. Effect of Time on the Number of Darkling Beetle Development" is missing labels for the x and y axes. Select the most appropriate labels for these axes. (x label listed first and then the y label)
A (x) Number of Mealworms (y) Class Group
B (x) Mealworm Development (y) Number of Mealworms
C (x) Number of Darkling Beetles in Stages of Development (y) Class Group - May 6, 2016
D (x) Class Group - May 6, 2016 (y) Number Darkling Beetles in Stages of Development
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An example of a constant in the mealworm experiment was that all the mealworms were kept in the same environment including temperature and light.
True
False
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The beetle data collected on Friday, May 6th and entered into the Table was qualitative.
True
False
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One of the independent variables in the beetle lab was the stage of the life cycle.
True
False
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Based on the information in this study, select the best recommendation to the Pet Store Retailers that raise mealworms for sale to customers and also as food for birds, lizards, and other pets in their store.
A Mealworms can be raised successfully and faster than the normal life cycle when ideal conditions of food and habitat is provided. Labor and supplies are minimal providing for a high profit margin on sale of the mealworms.
B Mealworms are difficult to raise and retailers need to plan for a minimum of 50% death rate. Retailers need to plan for larger spaces to raise sufficient quantities of mealworms for sale.
C Mealworms can be raised successfully, but it is a slow process requiring an added expense of labor and supplies to maintain a colony large enough to be profitable.
2. Breeding problem to resolve
A Pet Store owner needs to know how to breed dogs he has so the puppies will have certain traits. Different traits are more marketable than others. Since the gestation period for dogs is between 58-62 days, the Pet Store owner needs to guarantee the traits of the puppies to maximize profits. Go to the following link and use the game to produce the dog traits your customer wants.There are 3 single traits and 3 multiple traits in the game. You need to only do the ones to give the preferred traits below.

http://pbskids.org/dragonflytv/games/game_dogbreeding.html

Your customer is interested in puppies:

1) with black coat, long hair, and straight ears (3 traits- Level 5) because they can be sold for $200 more than other puppy traits.
2) with medium floppy ears (single trait- Level 3) puppies because they can be sold for $50 more than the other puppy traits.

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Add screenshot of successfully making puppies with medium floppy ears (1 trait - Level 3)
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The gene for floppy ears is recessive, so you never have a chance of getting 100% of the floppy ears trait unless both parents are purebred for floppy ears. All other combinations can only produce at maximum 50% of that trait. Recommendation to Pet Store owner is to purchase two purebreds for the trait of floppy ears to guarantee all puppies have this trait thus maximizing profits.
Purebred means having both alleles for the same trait.
True
False
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Add screenshot of successfully making puppies with black coat, long hair, and straight ears (3 traits - Level 5)
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The coat color and fur length are dominant/recessive alleles and are not too difficult to breed, however, the difficulty in this cross is the ear type because this trait expresses incomplete dominance. Two dominant alleles express straight ears (25% change), two recessive alleles express floppy ears (25% chance), and heterozygotes express medium length ears (50% chance)3.. Recommendation to Pet Store owner is to leave this breeding to a professional breeder and negotiate a price with the breeder. Profit margin will be less.
Incomplete dominance is when heterozygotes express a blending of the dominant and recessive trait
True
False
3. Determining ancestry for the genus Gallotia lizards
The Pet Store owner can sell the lizards he has for more money if he can also document ancestry of the lizard. These are a special group of lizards that come from the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa.

Background:

The Canary Islands form an archipelago of seven volcanic islands just west of the African continent. The island chain starts about 85 km (50 miles) west of the continent following a fault line of the Atlas Mountains in northern Africa. Geologist theorize that a geological hot spot of upwelling magma has been drifting westward for the past 20 million years, gradually forming the islands as it moves. Thus the most eastern island, Lanzarote, is oldest, while the smaller western island, Hierro, is the youngest, about 0.8 million years old. Volcanic islands are particularly good laboratories for evolution science because they can be dated accurately using radioactive isotope decay and because they start out as lifeless masses of rock emerging from the sea.

The development of ecosystems on volcanic islands is somewhat unpredictable. However, ecological succession does occur first with pioneer species that gradually alter the environment until a stable climax community is established. What is unpredictable is what plant and animal species will colonize these new environments. Much of this is left to climate, proximity to other land masses, and of course, chance. We are concerned about three species of lizards of the genus Gallotia, and within one of these species, Gallotia galloti, and four separate island populations. The arrival of the Fallotia lizards was probably by rafting. Rafts of natural vegetation are often washed out to sea when high river levels cause river banks to collapse, carrying away both plants and clinging animals. Oceanic currents in this region vary with the seasons. Colonization by airborne organisms, such as insects and birds, usually occurs during storms.
Canary Islands off Coast of Africa
Canary Island Distances from coast of Africa - scale is 100 km=3cm
Map 1 Ancestry based on Geographic Distance
    1. Completed for you. Select the point on the continent of Africa that protrudes the most into the ocean towards the islands. This will be your starting point for each measurement.
    2. Completed for you. Measure the distance from your starting point to each of the islands in cm and place in your Table A (round to the nearest ½ cm).
    3. You need to do the conversion to km based on the scale on the map (3 cms = 100 km) and enter it into your table. An example is provided on the worksheet.
    4. You need to complete the cladogram showing which island you think was colonized first, second, and so forth based on the information you collected in Table A and Principle #1 of Island Colonization: The closer the island is to another land mass, the higher the probability of colonization. The island that is the closest to Africa would be in the “ancestral” location on the cladogram and the island that is the farest away from Africa would be in the “most recent” location.
      1. Hash marks (nodes) will be the km from Table A
Data from Map 1; need calculator to convert cm to km - round to nearest whole number
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5 cm = ______km; only submit a number
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3 cm= _____km; only submit a number
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6 cm=______km; only submit a number
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9 cm=_____km; only submit a number
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11 cm=___________km; only submit a number
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13.5 cm = __________km; only submit a number; this is the same distance for Islands Palma and Hierro
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only place the letter used in the Table for the island name; I'll help you get started on this first one; this is the ancestral end of the cladogram; so the island that is the closest to Africa is placed here: F
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This is the node where you enter the distance in km; again only enter a number. I've helped you get started, this first node is: 100
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enter only the one/two letter(s) used in the Table for this island
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only enter the number representing the km at this node
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only enter the one/two letter(s) in the Table for the island
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only add the number representing the distance at this node
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only add the one/two letter(s) in the table for the island
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only add the number representing the distance at this node
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only use the one/two letter(s) in the Table for the island
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only add the number representing the distance at this node
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only enter the one/two letter(s) in the Table for this island
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only enter the one/two letter(s) in the Table for the island
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only add the number for the distance for the two remaining islands at this node
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Review Summary of Results: ___________________________is the closest island to Africa, so it is more likely to be populated with the lizards in this study because it was colonized first.
A H (for Hierro Island)
B H and P (for Palma and Hierro Islands)
C F (for Fuerteventura Island)
D GC (for Gran Canaria Island)
Ancestry based on Island Size; Principle #3 of Island Colonization: the larger the island, the more species are likely to be colonized on it.
  • Look at the size of each of the islands
  • Make a cladogram based on the size of the islands. The largest island would be in the “ancestral” location and the smallest island would be in the “most recent” location on the cladogram.
    • Hash marks (nodes) will be the island's area (you will only enter the number and not the units)
Using Island Size to determine ancestry
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The correct sequence of islands to enter across the top from left to right is____________ and the correct sequence of km to enter at the nodes from left to right is ____________.
A T- F - GC- L- P - G - H and 2034, 1660, 1560, 846, 708, 370, 269
B H - G - P - L- GC - F - T and 269, 370, 708, 846, 1560, 1660, 2034
C T - F - GC - L - P - G - H and 269, 370, 708, 846, 1560, 1660, 2034
D H -G - P - L - GC - F - T and 2034, 1660, 1560, 846, 708, 370, 269
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Review Summary: _____________________ is the largest island and is therefore the mostly like to have ______________________.
A F (for Fueteventura Island) ........colonized species first since it is also the island closest to Africa.
B GC (for Gran Canaria Island).......colonized species first since it is also the island closest to Africa.
C T (for Tenerife Island).....colonized species first even though it is not the closest island to Africa. Tenerife could be the oldest island since magma could have pushed up at this weak point along the fault line prior to some of the other island locations.
Since there was a conflict between Principles of Island Colonization #1 (the closest island from Africa has the greater probability of colonization--> Fuerteventura Island) and #3 (the largest island has the greater probability of colonization--> Te
Ancestry based on age of rocks.
  • The maximum age of each island was estimated by sampling volcanic rocks found on all islands. The ratio of radioactive potassium to its breakdown product, argon, was used to estimate the age of the rocks (radiometric dating). The results are listed in Table 1.
  • Using the data in Table 1 complete he cladogram based on age of rock. The oldest rocks should be located at the “ancestral” location on the cladogram and the newest/youngest rocks should be located at the “recent” location.
    • Hash marks (nodes) will be the rock age in the Table 1
Table 1. Maximum age of the Canary Islands in millions of years (mya) (Anguita et al., 1986)
L&F
Lanzarote & Fuerteventura
GC

Gran Canaria
T

Tenerife
G

Gomera
P

Palma
H

Hierro
24.0 mya17.1 mya15.1 mya5.3 mya2.0 mya0.8 mya
Complete the cladogram based on the age of rocks estimate from radiometric dating in Table 1
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The sequence of islands from left to right across the top is_____________ and the age of rocks at the nodes from left to right is_________________ according to data in Table 1.
A H - P - G - T - GC - L or F ........0.8, 2.0, 5.3, 15.1, 17.1, 24.0
B F or L - GC - T - G - P - H.........0.8, 2.0, 5.3, 15.1, 17.1, 24.0
C H - P - G - T - GC - L or F .......24.0, 17.1, 15.1, 5.3, 2.0, 0.8
D F or L - GC - T - G - P - H........24.0, 17.1, 15.1, 5.3, 2.0, 0.8
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Review/Summary: Principles #1 and #3 support ..................... compared to ________________________which is only supported by Principle #2.
A Fuerteventura and Tenerife (F & T) Islands as being the oldest and the closest to the African continent as being colonized first.......Lanzarote Island
B Palma, Gomera and Hierro (P & G & H) Islands as being the first to colonize organisms.........Tenerife Island
C Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (F & L) Islands as being the oldest and the closest to the African continent as being colonized first....... Tenerife Island
D The Principles of Island Colonization #1, #2, and #3 all support different islands as being the first to be colonized.
Let's look at morphology to determine ancestry like Linnaeus did to classify organisms prior to molecular data.
Determining ancestry using physical traits (morphology)
  • Study the drawings from each lizard population in Fig. 2 and Map 2 above. Researchers collected individuals from all island populations and bred and raised them in captivity. Their offspring still displayed differences according to their parental characteristics; therefore, there were three distinct species.
  • Complete the cladogram below based on morphology. You will have to decide whether you think large or small body size is “ancestral” or “recent” when placing your islands on the cladogram. Hash marks (nodes) are the lizard species

Hint from Genetics Unit: We talked about human height being a result of genes as well as environmental conditions, including the health of the individual; i.e., if you don’t have good nutrition, enough food, or a disease, you can not reach your DNA potential. Height in humans could be equated to body size in lizards.

The data has already been inserted into the Table for you to use with your cladogram
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Select the Islands and lizard species that you think best fit at this node. When you select what species goes at the bottom of the cladogram you also select the species that will be at the other end of the cladogram.
A G. galloti and Islands T, G, P and H
B G. galloti and Islands F & L
C G. stehilini and Islands T, G, P and H
D G. stehilini and Islands F & L
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Select an explanation(s) for the different body sizes (small, medium and large) of the lizard G. galloti,
A The islands where this species lives are different sizes and they most likely have different quantities of food and resources available for the lizard to use.
B The islands where this species lives may have varying numbers of competitors for the same resources. Competition for the same resources may limit growth size.
C The smaller lizards may live on islands with predators. Being small may provide an advantage for the lizard to hide from its predators.
D A, B, and C are all plausible explanations.
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Correctly give the lizard species name living on Gran Canaria Island.
While Linnaeus did amazingly accurate work with morphology traits, molecular data is used today as the final word when identifying and classifying organisms and determining their relatedness to other organisms.
  • Species from the Canary Islands and the data is given in Table 3. All of the differences have already been counted for you except one: G. galloti (G) and G. galloti (H). Count the differences. Enter directly into matrix, blue box #41.
    • Note: Thorpe tested two populations on Tenerife to see if ecological differences were part of the story. North Tenerife is moist and lush while South Tenerife is arid and barren. He thought populations in the two different areas may have some genetic differences and there could be two sources of supplying colonizing lizards from two different directions to the islands Palma, Gomera, and Hierra.
  • Construct a final cladogram based on genetic similarities and differences. Hash marks (nodes) are the number of differences from your Table 2.
    • Note: Low numbers indicate genetic similarity and imply more recent common ancestry. High numbers are said to have greater genetic distance between them and therefore have a more distant ancestry.
Cytochrome b sequence for comparison between
Complete the matrix by adding the last count in the blue box #41
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Put in the number of differences between these two species on the different islands that you counted from Table 3 above
Instructions for completing the last cladogram below based on molecular data

Hash marks (nodes) are numbers of differences from your completed Table 2. This means the smaller the number the more closely the organisms are related.


Islands with species on them go across the top. Each is only used once. Use the following abbreviations from Table 2:

GsF&L = G. stehlini Fuerteventura & Lanzarote Islands

GaGC = G. atlantica Gran Canaria Island

GgNT = G. galloti North Tenerife Island

GgST = G. galloti South Tenerife Island

GgP = G. galloti Palma Island

GgG = G. galloti Gomera Island

GgH = G.galloti Hierro Island
Cladogram based on DNA molecular differences
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Add the most ancestral species with its island code here - be sure to use the exact abbreviation from the list above so you will receive credit for your work; do not put any spaces between the letters
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add the next abbreviation for species & island - don't put any spaces between the letters
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add the next species and island - use the exact abbreviation above and don't put any spaces between the letters
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add the next species with island; use the exact abbreviation and no spaces between the letters
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enter the next species with island; use exact abbreviation and don't put any spaces between letters
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enter the last two species with their islands; they can be in either location because they are equally distant from the last node; use exact abbreviations with no spaces between the letters
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Select the sequence for the nodes that starts at the bottom left and goes up the cladogram to the top right
A 4, 6, 8, 19, 36
B 36, 19, 8, 6, 4
C 49, 28, 19, 21, 17
D 36, 25, 19, 19, 15
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Select the species which is the least related to the other two species.
A G. stehilini because its column of numbers is larger than any of the other columns indicating that it is not closely related to the other two species.
B G. atlantica because it is only species on Gran Canaria Island.
C G. galloti because it is only on the newest islands that are the farest away from Africa.
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Is there evidence to support Thorpe's thought that there may be two different pools of G. galloti for colonization from North and South Tenerife to Palma, Gomera and Hierro?
A No, all of the numbers are exactly the same between this species and the adjacent islands.
B Yes, because there are differences between the other islands and North and South Tenerife. NT to Palma has 8 compared to 10 from ST; ST to Gomera has 15 compared to 19 from NT; and ST to Hierro has 17 compared to 21 from NT.
C There isn't enough evidence to make a conclusion about Thorpe's hypothesis.
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Back to a recommendation for the Pet Store owner. G. stehilini on the Fuerteventura and Lanzarote Islands has the best support for ancestry because it is backed up by molecular evidence as well as three of the principles of island colonization. This would be the best species to market with ancestry for additional profits.
True
False
Congratulations! Hopefully you have finished off these tasks well and can move on to your promotion in August. Have a fun, relaxing and enjoyable summer.
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