When the Civil War began, about 25,000 Texans volunteered to
fight. Thousands joined the army from other Confederate states,
too. However, losses were high. To meet the need for soldiers, the
Confederate congress passed the Conscription Act in 1862. It said
that all men between 18 and 35 had to serve in the armed forces.
Overall about 70,000 Texans served in the war. About two-thirds of
the first Texans soldiers were in the cavalry. They fought on horseback.
Thousands of other Texans were foot soldiers in the infantry.
Two well-known units came from Texas. One group, Hood’s
Brigade, led for a time by Brigadier General John Bell Hood, fought
in most of the major battles in the East. Hood’s Texans met with
high casualties. Soldiers died in battle, but many died from disease.
Army camps were filthy, food was of poor quality, and good medical
care was scarce. Of the more than 700,000 soldiers who died on
both sides in the war, two-thirds died from disease or infection.
The other famous Texas unit was Terry’s Texas Rangers, a cavalry
force. The Rangers were led by Benjamin Franklin Terry. This unit
fought in battles from Tennessee to Georgia.
Although most Texans supported the Confederacy, some did
not. Those who supported the federal government were known
as Unionists. Over 2,000 Texan Unionists joined the Union army.
Some Tejanos fought for the Union because they were bitter
about their lands being taken and because of ill treatment by
Texans. Unionists faced hostility. In 1862, some German settlers
were caught trying to flee to Mexico to avoid conscription.
Confederate cavalry killed many in a fight near the Nueces River.
Other Unionists tried to escape the draft by hiding. Some were
arrested. Others were forced to join the army, and still others were
killed by vigilante groups. These were citizens who took the law into
their own hands. Vigilantes often hanged Unionists without a trial.
African Americans supported the Union because a Union victory
would mean an end to slavery. Some African Americans from Texas
managed to join the Union army. One, Milton M. Holland, led his
unit to victory after all the commanders had been killed. For this, he
was awarded the Medal of Honor, America's highest military award.
What is a unionist?
Southerner that supported the North
Northerner that supported the Confederacy
The conscription act required...
all army doctors to give free prescriptions to soldiers
all kids ages 6-18 to attend school for 4 hours each day
all males 18-35 to serve in the armed forces
all females 18-35 to take over farms while the men were at war
Which of the following are famous Texas units that fought in the Civil War?
Terry's Texas Rangers and Grant's Garrison
Hood's Brigade and Lee's Legion
Lee's Legion and Grant's Garrison
Hood's Brigade and Terry's Texas Rangers
African Americans supported the Union because a Union victory would mean an end
to slavery. Which African American led his unit to victory after all the
commanders had been killed and was awarded the Medal of Honor?
Milton M. Holland
John Bell Hood
Benjamin Franklin Terry
John B. Magruder
Three-Part Union Strategy
Which of the following geographic features or areas was NOT part of the Union's
What is a blockade?
citizens who took the law into their own hands
sealing off a place to prevent goods or people from entering or leaving
those who supported the federal government
when your bff tells your crush you have a crush on someone else because they
also like your crush
Fighting to Control Galveston
Because of Texas’s location on the Gulf of Mexico, the effects of
the blockade were felt by soldiers and citizens. Texans tried to make
their coastline more secure. They had fortifications built along the
shore. Heavy cannons were set up. However, in 1862, a small Union
fleet sailed into Galveston harbor and forced the city to surrender.
The loss of Galveston was a serious blow to Texas and to the
Confederacy. Confederate commanders knew they had to regain
the city. General John B. Magruder commanded the Confederate
forces in Texas. He was determined to retake Galveston. He
gathered infantry, cavalry, and gunboats for the attempt.
On New Year’s Day, 1863, Confederate troops attacked the Union
forces at Galveston. The Confederate gunboats forced one Union
ship to surrender. Another Union ship was blown up by its own crew
after running aground. The rest of the Union fleet steamed away.
Several hundred Union soldiers surrendered, and Galveston was
again under Confederate control.
The Confederacy held Galveston for the rest of the war, even
though the Union blockade outside Galveston remained in effect.
Galveston became one of the only ports available to the Confederacy.
Ships known as blockade runners continued to bring much-needed
supplies for Texas and the Confederacy into Galveston.
Why would the Union crew blow up their own ship?
they feared capture by the Confederates
to help other Union ships escape and keep the Confederates from gaining much
they hadn't been paid by the government for many months
Why was recapturing Galveston important to the Confederacy?
Galveston held the majority of ammunition for the Confederacy
Galveston became one of the only ports available to the Confederacy.
Galveston was the most central location of the Confederacy
Galveston was the gateway to the Confederacy capitol
The Union wanted to gain control of Texas and Confederate lands west
of the Mississippi River. They hoped to enter the interior of Texas by
controlling Sabine Pass, where the Sabine River flows into the Gulf of
Mexico. Fort Griffin was located at the pass. The Union commander in
the area wanted to land troops near Sabine Pass, capture the fort,
and then march overland to capture Beaumont and Houston.
During the Union attack, Confederates fired on Union ships and
captured about 350 Union soldiers. The Union forces retreated, and
Sabine Pass stayed under Confederate control.
Texans shipped and received goods throughout the war, despite
the blockade. Confederates sold cotton to Europe in return for
medicine, ammunition, and other supplies. The city of Brownsville
is near Mexico, so Texas traders could send their cotton across the
Rio Grande to Matamoros, Mexico. The use of the Mexican port
made some trade possible.
The Union army hoped to cut off this valuable supply line. In
November 1863, Union forces captured Brownsville and tried to
gain more territory. Confederate forces recaptured Brownsville in
July 1864. When the war ended, Union troops occupied only
Brazos Island at the mouth of the Rio Grande.
Chose the sentence describing the goal of the attack on Sabine Pass.
The Union army hoped to cut off this valuable supply line.
The Union wanted to gain control of Texas and Confederate lands west of the
Texans shipped and received goods throughout the war, despite the blockade.
When the war ended, Union troops occupied only Brazos Island at the mouth of the
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