What is the term for a feature that allows an organism to survive better in its environment?
All the individuals of a species that live in a particular area are called a
The remnant of an organ that had a function in an early ancestor is known as a(n)
Fossil evidence shows that structures considered vestigial in living organisms
are not found in ancient organisms.
have always been vestigial.
were useful to their ancestors.
do not fill gaps in the fossil record.
Which of the following lists the four main principles of the theory of natural selection?
adaptation, inheritance of acquired characteristics, overproduction, variation
adaptation, inheritance of acquired characteristics, heritability, variation
adaptation, descent with modification, heritability, variation
adaptation, descent with modification, overproduction, variation
If two species have similar DNA sequences, it would indicate that they
share a common ancestor.
are not closely related.
will have similar fitness.
have no evolutionary relationship.
The combined alleles of all the individuals in a population is called the
What are two main sources of genetic variation?
mutations and extinction
recombination and extinction
recombination and reproduction
mutations and recombination
What does being in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium mean for a population?
The population is evolving very rapidly.
The population is not evolving.
Equilibrium would gradually end.
Gene flow would occur, but slowly.
To be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, a population must be
very small, have random mating, no gene flow, no mutations, no natural selection.
very large, have random mating, high gene flow, many mutations, natural selection.
small, have nonrandom mating, no gene flow, many mutations, no natural selection.
very large, have random mating, no gene flow, no mutations, no natural selection.
Assuming that there are only two alleles at a given locus, if the frequency of one allele is 0.6, what is the frequency of the other allele?
If a population with two alleles is at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and the frequency of one allele (p) is 0.7, what is the heterozygote frequency?
In the figure above, , the fact that the bone structure is similar among birds and mammals indicates
a common ancestry for both birds and mammals
that humans evolved from birds
that the forelimb of both humans and birds have a similar function
that nature can coincidentally produce similar structures for different functions
The above diagram provides a good example of
inheritance of acquired traits
If a similar diagram to the one above was constructed comparing the wing of a bird, the wing of a bat, and the wing of an insect, the insect wing would serve to illustrate an example of
a vestigial structure
a homologous organ
a possible ancestor to the flying vertebrates
an analogous structure
For questions #16-19 use the scenario below to help answer. A biologist spent many years researching the rate of evolutionary change in the finch populations of a group of islands. It was determined that the average beak size (both length and mass) of finches in a certain population increased dramatically during an intense drought between 1981 and 1987. During the drought, there was a reduction in the number of plants producing thin-walled seeds.
Which of the following procedures was most likely followed to determine the change in beak size?
A few finches were trapped in 1981 and again in 1987, and their beak sizes were compared.
The beak size in fifteen finches was measured in 1987, and the beak size in the original finches was determined by estimation.
The beak size in a large number of finches was measured every year from 1981 to 1987.
Finches were captured and bred in 1981, and the beak size of the offspring was measured.
Which of the following statements might best explain the increase in average beak size in the finch population during the drought?
Finches with bigger beaks are better able to crack thick-walled seeds and produce more surviving offspring
Finches with bigger beaks can attack and kill finches with smaller beaks.
Finches with bigger beaks possess more powerful flight muscles and are able to find more food.
Finches that crack large seeds develop larger beaks over time.
Which of the following best describes the mechanism behind the change in beak size in the finch population?
The formation of two new finch species from a single parent species
A change in gene frequencies in the finch population due to selective pressure from the environmental change
A new allele appearing in the finch population as a result of mutation
The achievement of dynamic equilibrium in the finch population as a result of homeostasis
The biologist discovered that from 1988 to 1993, the average beak size declined to pre-1981 levels. The reversal in beak size from 1988 to 1993 was most likely related to which of the following events?
A loss of food supply for the finches
The end of the drought
An increase in drought conditions
An increase in predators consuming finches
In fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), straight wing shape is dominant to curly wing shape. A particular population of fruit flies is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the alleles for wing shape. The Hardy-Weinberg equation, given below, is useful in understanding population genetics: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
Explain what the terms ( p2, 2pq, and q2 ) represent in the population of fruit flies.
Describe one condition that is necessary for the population to be in equilibrium.
In the reading above, what is the meaning of the term "selective advantage"?
Explain what environmental factor influenced the change in color of the peppered moth.
Describe Kettlewell's experiment with the peppered moths.
Describe the trend of the peppered moth using the graph above.
Based on the graph above, in which year were both colored moths equal?
If a population that contains 16% homozygous recessive individuals (blue eyes), and 84% individuals with brown eyes (homozygous dominant and heterozygotes), what is the frequency of the dominant allele (p) in the population?
DNA sequences can be used to determine the evolutionary relationships of species because
organisms with similar anatomy will develop similar DNA sequences by convergent mutations
DNA sequences for proteins never change, so two species that have the same protein will have the same DNA sequence
natural selection causes organisms that live in similar environmental conditions to have the same mutations in their DNA sequences
mutations occur randomly in DNA at a steady rate, so the number of DNA difference is equivalent to the time since a pair of species that shared a common ancestor
The embryonic development of vertebrates provides evidence for evolution because
each organism passes through the entire evolutionary history of its species as it develops from a fertilized egg to a full grown individual
the more recently species have shared a common ancestor, the more similar their embryological development
the DNA sequences of embryos change as they develop
unrelated organisms can develop from very similar embryos
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