Part A: Select the meaning of the word “marginalization” as it is used in the following text:
“That is particularly true, they claim, because the social groups that are commonly the targets of hate speech have historically suffered from social marginalization and oppression.” (RI.2.4)
Part B: Select two words or phrases that help the reader determine the meaning of this word. (RI.2.4)
“Critics of hate speech argue that it causes psychological harm to its victims, and physical harm when it incites violence. They also say that it makes its victims less equal in society. That is particularly true, they claim, because the social groups that are commonly the targets of hate speech have historically suffered from social marginalization and oppression. Hate speech therefore poses a challenge for modern liberal societies, which are committed to both freedom of expression and social equality. Thus, there is an ongoing debate in those societies over whether and how hate speech should be regulated or censored.”
The phrase, “freedom of expression” is an allusion to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights-a document that protects human rights. Based on the article, what does “freedom of expression” mean in regard to hate speech? (RI.2.4)
Censorship of oppressive hate speech is acceptable
Hate speech is bigoted and disgusting
Hate speech cannot be censored
The government should disallow unpopular expression
Based on the text, what connotation do the words “censorship” and “hate speech” have in common? (RI.2.4)
They both create a violent tone
They both create an accepting tone
They both create an authoritative tone
They both create an oppressive tone
Read the following text from the article. (RI.2.5)
“The court system of the United States has, on the basis of the First Amendment and its principle of freedom of speech, generally ruled against attempts to censor hate speech. The only exceptions are if hate speech is being used to incite immediate harm to a person or group, or if someone uses "fighting words" when standing right in front of them.”
“Other liberal democracies such as France, Germany, Canada and New Zealand have laws designed to lessen hate speech. Such laws have proliferated since World War II.”
How does this section of text best refine the concept of censorship of hate speech?
The text suggests that censorship of hate speech is limited in the United States, but does occur under special circumstances and that other countries also use laws limit hate speech.
The text suggests that censorship of hate speech can never occur because hate speech is free speech; however, other countries have made laws that limit hate speech.
The text suggests that since other countries with liberal democracies have laws that limit hate speech, the United States should too.
The text suggests that the United States is fortunate to have laws that protect against censorship of free speech and that other countries do not have the same liberties.
Select a sentence from the following excerpt that supports the idea that hate speech infringes on the free speech liberties of its victims. (RI.2.5)
“Hate speech, they argue, is not just the "free expression of ideas;" it effectively diminishes its victims' standing in society. When aimed at historically oppressed minorities, hate speech is not just insulting — it also continues the oppression of these minorities. It causes the victims, the perpetrators and society at large to internalize the hateful messages and act on that hate. Victims of hate speech cannot enter the “open marketplace of ideas” as equal participants to defend themselves. For them, hate speech, in addition to a broader system of inequality and unjust discrimination that burdens the victims, effectively silences them.”
How does the structure of the first 4 paragraphs impact the text? (RI.2.5)
They are structured to encourage the reader to maintain a neutral opinion about the topic
They are structured to help the reader draw the conclusion that hate speech is harmful
They are structured to convince the reader that hate speech should be censored
They are structured to convince the reader to feel sympathy for marginalized groups
In the section “Censorship is Worse Than Hate Speech,” how does the author respond to conflicting viewpoints on the topics of hate speech and censorship? (RI.2.6)
The author argues that the best way to fight hate speech is to point out how wrong and false it is as an idea.
The author acknowledges that most people think hate speech should be censored even though it infringes upon an “open exchange of ideas”.
The author takes a position on the debate about regulating the censorship of hate speech.
The author implies that both critics and advocates of censorship agree on the matter of hate speech being wrong.
What is the author’s purpose in the text, “What is Hate Speech?” (RI.2.6)
to convince the reader that people do not have the liberty to say whatever they want when they are oppressing other people
to discuss the debate over people’s rights to speak freely in regard to hate speech
to convince the reader that regardless of what the debate over free speech says, hate speech is wrong
to discuss how liberal societies should regulate hate speech and censorship
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